Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common skin disease during infancy, which imposes a considerable burden on patients, their families, and the society, requiring effective treatment options that result in rapid and sustained symptom relief. Additionally, early treatment may prevent the development of atopic comorbidities by restoring the skin barrier. Currently, topical standard-of-care for AD in infants includes emollients and topical corticosteroids (TCS) to treat and reduce the risk of flares. However, only few have been approved for infants and long-term maintenance therapy with TCS is not indicated due to potential local and systemic side effects, including skin atrophy. Accordingly, the recently updated European guidelines for treatment of AD recommend topical calcineurin inhibitors (TCIs) for long-term use, treatment of sensitive skin areas, and for use in the pediatric population. Evidence on the use of TCIs for infants has almost been exclusively collected for pimecrolimus, with >4,000 infants evaluated in clinical trials, consistently confirming that pimecrolimus is a safe and effective treatment for infants with AD. Nevertheless, its use is still restricted in most countries to children above the age of 2 years due to initial and mostly theoretical safety concerns. Based on a careful review of the available evidence of clinical trials, post-marketing surveillance, and epidemiological studies, an Expert Panel of European dermatologists and pediatric allergologists concluded that these safety concerns are no longer valid. Therefore, pimecrolimus offers a safe and effective alternative to TCS in infants aged 3 months and above, and labeling restrictions in this age group are no longer justified.
This systematic review evaluates the efficacy, safety and economic impact of dupilumabcompared to standard of care for uncontrolled moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis (AD). Pubmed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library were searched for RCTs and health economic evaluations. Critical and important AD-related outcomes were considered. The risk of bias and the certainty of the evidence were assessed using GRADE. Seven RCTs including 1845 subjects > 12 years treated with dupilumab16 to 52 weeks were evaluated. For adultsthere is high certainty that dupilumabdecreasesSCORAD (MD -30,72; 95%CI -34,65% to -26,79%) and EASI-75 (RR 3.09; 95%CI 2.45 to 3.89), pruritus (RR 2.96; 95%CI 2.37 to 3.70), rescue medication (RR 3.46; 95%CI 2.79 to 4.30), sleep disturbance (MD -7.29; 95%CI -8.23 to -6.35), anxiety/depression (MD -3.08; 95% CI -4.41 to -1.75) and improves quality of life (MD -4.80; 95% CI -5.55 to -4.06). The efficacy for adolescents is similar. Dupilumab-related adverse events (AEs) slightly increase (low certainty). The evidence for dupilumab-related serious AE is uncertain. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio ranged from 28,500 £ (low certainty) to 124,541 US$ (moderate certainty).More data on long term safety are needed both for children and adults, together with more efficacy data in the paediatric population.
This systematic review evaluates the efficacyand safety of omalizumab for chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU). Pubmed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library were searched for RCTs. Critical and important CSU-related outcomes were considered. The risk of bias and the certainty of the evidence were assessed using GRADE. Ten RCTs including 1620 subjects aged 12 to 75 years old treated with omalizumab for 16 to 40 weeks were evaluated. Omalizumab 150 mg: does not result in clinically meaningful improvement(high certainty) of the urticaria activity score (UAS)7 (mean difference (MD) -5; 95%CI -7.75 to -2.25) and the itch severity score(ISS)7 (MD -2.15; 95% CI -3.2 to -1.1); does not increase (moderate certainty) quality of life (QoL) (Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI); MD -2.01; 95%CI -3.22 to -0.81); decreases (moderate certainty) rescue medication use (MD -1.68; 95%CI -2.95 to -0.4). Omalizumab 300 mg:results in clinically meaningful improvements(moderate certainty)of the UAS7 (MD -11.05; 95%CI -12.87 to -9.24), theISS7 (MD -4.45; 95%CI -5.39 to -3.51), and QoL (high certainty)(DLQI; MD -4.03; 95% CI -5.56 to -2.5); decreases (moderate certainty) rescue medication use (MD -2.04; 95%CI -3.19 to -0.88) and drug-related serious AEs (RR 0.77; 95%CI 0.20 to 2.91).